34 see also edit further reading: Scholarly studies edit The Frontier In American History the original 1893 essay by turner ray allen Billington. The American Frontier (1958) 35 page essay on the historiography billington, ray allen. Frederick jackson Turner: historian, scholar, teacher. (1973 highly detailed scholarly biography. Billington, ray allen,. The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (1966 the major attacks and defenses of Turner. America's Frontier Heritage (1984 an analysis of Turner's theories in relation to social sciences and historiography billington, ray allen.
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They argue that, "Frontier imagery motivates Fermilab physicists, and a homework rhetoric remarkably similar to that of Turner helped them secure support for their research." Rejecting the east and West coast life styles that most scientists preferred, they selected a chicago suburb on the prairie. A small herd of American bison was started at the lab's founding to symbolize fermilab's presence on the frontier of physics and its connection to the American prairie. The bison herd still lives on the grounds of Fermilab. 27 Architecturally, the lab's designers rejected the militaristic design of Los Alamos and Brookhaven as well as the academic architecture of the lawrence berkeley national Laboratory and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Instead Fermilab's planners sought to return word to turnerian themes. They emphasized the values of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, and the resolution of social, economic, and political issues. Milton Stanley livingston, the lab's associate director, said in 1968, "The frontier of high energy and the infinitesimally small is a challenge to the mind of man. If we can reach and cross this frontier, our generations will have furnished a significant milestone in human history." 28 Electronic frontier edit john Perry barlow, along with Mitch Kapor, promoted the idea of cyberspace (the realm of telecommunication) as an "electronic frontier" beyond the. 29 30 Scholars analyzing the Internet have often cited Frederick jackson Turner's frontier model. Of special concern is the question whether the electronic frontier will replicate the stages of development of the American land frontier. Wikipedia is a major presence on the electronic frontier, and the wikipedia editors have been explicitly compared to the pioneers of Turner's American frontier in terms of their youth, aggressiveness, boldness, equalitarianism and rejection of limitations.
Historians have noted that John. Kennedy in the early 1960s explicitly called upon the ideas of the frontier. 23 At his acceptance speech upon securing the democratic Party nomination for. President on July 15, 1960, kennedy called out to the American people, "I am asking each of you to be new pioneers on that New Frontier. My call is to the young in heart, regardless of age—to the stout in spirit, regardless of party." 24 Mathiopoulos notes that he "cultivated this resurrection of frontier ideology as a motto of progress getting America moving throughout his term of office." 25 he promoted. Limerick points out that Kennedy assumed that "the campaigns of the Old Frontier had been successful, and morally justified." 26 The "frontier" metaphor thus maintained its rhetorical ties to American social progress. The frontier thesis is one of the most influential documents on the American west today. Fermilab edit kolb and Hoddeson argue that during the heyday of Kennedy's "New Frontier the physicists who built the fermi labs explicitly sought to recapture the excitement of the old writers frontier.
20 moos (2002) shows that the 1910s to 1940s black filmmaker and novelist Oscar Micheaux incorporated Turner's frontier thesis into his work. Micheaux promoted the west as a place where blacks could transcend race and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance. 21 Slatta (2001) argues that the widespread popularization of Turner's frontier thesis influenced popular histories, motion pictures, and novels, which characterize the west in terms of individualism, frontier violence, and rough justice. Disneyland 's Frontierland of the mid to late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage. The public has ignored academic historians' anti-turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage. However, the work of historians during the 1980s1990s, some of whom sought to bury turner's conception of the frontier, and others who sought to spare the concept but with nuance, have done much to place western myths in context and rescue western history from them. 22 New frontiers edit john. Kennedy, white house photo portrait, looking up Subsequent critics, historians, and politicians have suggested that other 'frontiers such as scientific innovation, could serve similar functions in American development.
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However, others viewed this interpretation as the impetus for a new wave in the history of United States imperialism. William Appleman Williams led the "Wisconsin School" of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century. Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism. 16 However, turner's work, in contrast to roosevelt's work The winning of the west, places greater emphasis on the development of American republicanism than on territorial conquest. Other historians, who resume wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially native americans and Hispanics, started in the 1970s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups. 17 Indeed, their approach was to reject the frontier as an important process and to study the west as a region, ignoring the frontier experience east of the mississippi river.
18 Turner never published a major book on the frontier for which he did 40 years of research. 19 However his ideas presented in his graduate seminars at Wisconsin and Harvard influenced many areas of historiography. In the history of religion, for example, boles (1993) notes that William Warren Sweet at the University of Chicago divinity School as well as Peter. Mode (in 1930 argued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the mormons, the Church of Christ, the disciples of Christ, and the cumberland Presbyterians. The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching. This view dominated religious historiography for decades.
The question is whether their frontiers were powerful enough to overcome conservative central forces based in the metropolis. 8 Each nation had quite different frontier experiences. For example, the dutch boers in south Africa were defeated in war by Britain. In Australia, "mateship" and working together was valued more than individualism was in the United States. 9 Impact and influence edit Other historians in the 1890s had begun to explore the meaning of the frontier, such as Theodore roosevelt, who had a different theory. Roosevelt argued that the battles between the trans-Appalachian pioneers and the Indians in the "Winning of the west" had forged a new people, the American race.
10 It was the turner version that became standard. Turner's thesis quickly became popular among intellectuals. It explained why the American people and American government were so different from their European counterparts. It was popular among New dealers—Franklin roosevelt and his top aides 11 thought in terms of finding new frontiers. 12 fdr, in celebrating the third anniversary of Social Security in 1938, advised, "There is still today a frontier that remains unconquered—an America unreclaimed. This is the great, the nation-wide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear. This is the frontier—the America—we have set ourselves to reclaim." 13 Historians adopted it, especially in studies of the west, 14 but also in other areas, such as the influential work of Alfred. (19182007) in business history. 15 Many believed that the end of the frontier represented the beginning of a new stage in American life and that the United States must expand overseas.
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They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. 6, closed frontier edit, turner saw the land frontier was ending, since the. Census of 1890 had officially stated that the American frontier had broken. He sounded an alarming note, speculating as to what this meant for the continued dynamism of American society as the source. Innovation and democratic ideals was disappearing. Citation needed comparative frontiers edit historians, geographers, and social scientists have studied friendship frontier-like conditions in other countries, with an eye on the turnerian model. South Africa, canada, russia, brazil, Argentina and Australia—and even ancient Rome—had long frontiers that were also settled by pioneers. 7 However these other frontier societies operated in a very difficult political and economic environment that made democracy and individualism much less likely to appear and it was much more difficult to throw off a powerful royalty, standing armies, established churches and an aristocracy that.
studied evolution with a leading geologist, Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin using the time dimension of American history, and the geographical space of the land that became the United States. The first settlers who arrived on the east coast in the 17th century acted and thought like europeans. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two. European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country's institutions (e.g., established churches, established aristocracies, standing armies, intrusive government, and highly unequal land distribution) were increasingly out of place. Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and more intolerant of hierarchy.
The frontier had no need for standing armies, established churches, aristocrats or nobles, nor for landed gentry who controlled most of the land and charged heavy rents. Frontier land was free for the taking. Turner first announced his thesis in a paper entitled ". The significance of the Frontier in American History delivered to the, american Historical Association in 1893 in Chicago. He won wide acclaim among historians and intellectuals. Turner elaborated on the theme in his advanced history lectures and in a series of essays published over the next 25 years, published along with his initial statement paper. The Frontier in American History. 2, turner's emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories.
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The, frontier Thesis or, turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian. Frederick jackson Turner in 1893 that, american democracy was formed by the American frontier. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process. He also stressed results; especially that lab American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism, a lack of interest in high culture, and violence. "American democracy was born of no theorist's dream; it was not carried in the. Susan Constant to virginia, nor in the, mayflower to Plymouth. It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier said Turner. 1, in the thesis, the. American frontier established liberty by releasing Americans from European mindsets and eroding old, dysfunctional customs.