For exercise 3 our group of 3-4 people obtained the fruit flies that were used to set up the F1 generation and for this exercise the F1 flies. Were the offsprings of an unknown P cross. At the end of this exercise the mission was to identify the 2 mutants that were used in the original cross and to understand how they were set up by breeding F1 flies and tracking the inheritance patterns. For this experiment we received a vial with name of a cross and all the required information. For lab three we conducted scientific methods to solve genetic crosses, which included making a hypothesis, designing an experiment, carrying out the procedure and interpreting the results. After the fly breeding, data collection and analysis my group discussed and collaborated the importance of our data and proposed an explanation for alternative outcomes. For this following lab we included the fly breeding techniques to help collect 1000 or more flies. For this part we used two methods which included transferring flies into new vials.
Frank potter s Science gems - life Science
Then we quickly removed the stopper from the culture and placed the foam stopper on the napping chamber. Then watched and waited for about 60-90 seconds until fruit flies stopped moving and after that removed fruit flies from vials for examination. Under the microscope we distinguished and separated male and female flies. In exercise 3 we identified different fly mutants and repeated the process of anesthetize to observe and compare from mutant to wild type fruit flies. For exercise 4 we reviewed Mendels law of genetics, punnet square, chi square, monohybrid cross and Mendels dihybrid cross. For lab two the purpose of the lab was to observe the basic techniques of culturing flies and set up a crosses between different fruit flies and to provide proper nomenclature. In this lab we were given homework several exercises that consisted of table and information on how to help us understand the techniques we will be using for the purpose of this lab. In exercise 1 we learned the Drosophila nomenclature, based on the phenotype and the gene was given a name. Then we used the genotype to track other genes at a time. For exercise 2 we predicted cross outcomes by using two examples given to us in the unit file. Then we were assigned two traits from the instructor and wrote down the crossing scheme and predicted the phenotypic ratios in the given examples, generations.
Then we mixed gently until eksempel a homogenously blue food solidified. Then if necessary we wiped away remaining liquid on the vial. After for exercise 2 we identified the life cycle of the fruit flies and answered questions after that we set up groups of 3 members and obtained a wild type Drosophila culture from front bench and observed under the microscope. After we also identified the stage and the sex of the fruit fly. Then we learned to anesthetize adult flies and we placed them under the microscope for further identification. To anesthetize flies we obtained empty vial with foam stopper and added 2 drops of fly nap to the inside of the foam stopper. Then we placed the foam stopper in vial. We then transferred the flies in the empty vial, we removed the stopper/ vial and then gently tapped the bottom of the Drosophila culture.
Methods, for lab one the Drosophila melanogaster species was introduced by indicating the 3 principles of Mendel. The purpose of the lab was to introduce us to the basic structure and the life cycle of fruit flies and the basic techniques of identifying fly mutants and wild type fruit flies. Lab one consisted of several different exercises that helped us identify and understand the differences of fly mutants and wild type fruit flies. For exercise 1 we obtained a carolina. The required tools that we used included culture vessels, plugs, medium; marking pencils or permanent pens, labels, fly nap, white sorting cards, fine sorting brushes and a microscope were all used for this experiment. The instructor showed us how to make a fly food vial and we prepared fly vials. We first obtained disposable vials, we mixed an equal amount of fly food and distilled water.
Can Doggie dna tests Decode your Mutts makeup?
Since only the F1 generation was observed during the beginning of this experiment the cross between the F1 generations for the given cross was identified for the p generation. In the following F2 generation a new mutant was observed in both male and females, 2 for different phenotypes the white eye gene was again observed following a new mutant; vestigial wings. In predicting this outcome the suggested prediction for the following traits had to do with the outcome that was created by setting up wild type females with white eyed males. Suggested outcomes of the following genes could be the possible aspect that the two genes assort independently and or dependently from each other. Both traits are located in different chromosomes which have different locations in their according chromosome.
Such as the white eye gene is located on the x chromosome. On the other hand the white eyes mutation is also a sex linked gene which can have a larger possibility for males to exhibit the white eye gene trait due to where the gene is located on the chromosome. For the given outcomes of the genes if predicted genes were autosomal than the reciprocal crosses would generate a same F1 phenotype because the genes are carried on genes that do not distinguish based on sex. On the other hand if the genes are different such as one is autosomal and the other gene is sex linked than the following genes would also create reciprocal crosses that generate different. F1 phenotypes because the genes carry different genotypes and once crossed the number of phenotypes would be different according to the overall phenotypic ratios.
But they also are predictive of the next 40 million years of evolution as well, he added. "What we are doing is more accurately known as a retrodiction - using something from the present to predict past events houle said. "Of course, we can now make a prediction that Drosophila will evolve in this pattern in the future, as well.". Story source: Materials provided by, florida State University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Successfully reported this slideshow. Fruit Fly genetics lab report, upcoming SlideShare, loading. Be the first to like this. No downloads, no notes for slide. Jessica Olivares 11/22/2014, bio 3103, fly lab report, fruit Fly report. Hypothesis, in setting up the fruit fly experiment the predicted mutant phenotypes were to be compared in the observed F1 generation and F2 generation. In order to make the appropriate phenotypic ratios we based the F1 and F2 to generate two mutants that were used to set up the parental cross. In the observed F1 generation the white eye mutant was located on the male drosophila melanogaster. The following white eye mutation could be set up by the following white type white eye female and a combination of wild type male with vestigial wings.
Com - learn Words - english Dictionary
Van der Linde studied how these flies were related to each other. Houle then raised 200 generations of fruit flies - it takes four years to breed that many generations - and then individually raised some of the flies to see what, if any, changes occurred in the wings of the flies. In total, the researchers measured more than 50,000 fly wings in the course of this study for and found changes in the overall shape of the wing, such as the ratio of width to length and vein locations. Some types of changes evolved at a higher rate than others, such as the ratio of wing width and length. These evolutionary changes were also the most common mutational changes. Through these observations and sophisticated statistical modeling, houle and his team were able to determine that the small mutational changes occurred in the same pattern as evolution throughout the entire group of fly species. The findings are likely applicable to how other plants and animal species evolved, houle said.
"i've always been interested in evolutionary process, what's going on and what's limiting. It's the nuts and bolts.". By examining fossil evidence and conducting dna sequencing, houle statement and his colleagues knew that fruit flies had been around for roughly 40 million years old. They also suspected that the pattern of mutation could have remained constant over that time period. "It is often true that some things evolve very slowly, and it's reasonable to conclude that mutational pattern may be one of those things he said. "The important thing is that the pattern of past evolution did not necessarily have to be similar to mutation. We are surprised at how similar they are.". To measure the rate of mutation and evolution, houle and co-author Kim van der Linde of the tallahassee-based Animal Genetics Inc. Gathered almost 120 different species of flies either by collecting them from nature or obtaining them from other scientists.
the same processes that shape long-term evolution also shape mutation.". Houle set out to investigate if there were parts of the fruit fly that couldn't mutate or evolve and how quickly other parts did. "We wanted to see how the effects that mutation produces are related to evolution houle said. "We were surprised that there was a very tight relationship.". Fruit flies are considered an ideal species for scientists to investigate unsolved problems in evolution and genetics because it is easy to breed more than 20 generations each year. Their wings are also easy to measure, so scientists can easily identify even small changes. "It's a convenient system to investigate complex parts of an organism houle said.
In the lab, i had a big autoclave to sterilize media and glass bottles, used commercially available media and resting screens, used a commercial product to anesthetize the flies, an expensive dissecting microscope to observe them, small water-color brushes to separate flies while sorting and. At home, i had almost none of that and raised many thousands of wingless (actually "apterous flies! Small, seemingly insignificant mutations in fruit flies may actually hold clues as to how a species will evolve tens of millions of years in the future. That's the focus of a new study by a florida State University researcher who raised 200 generations of fruit flies to examine how they summary changed both in the short and long term. What he found was quite surprising. Small mutations in the wing of fruit flies - the drosophilids - predict up to 40 million years of evolution for this common household pest. The research was published in the journal.
Cute, dragon, stationary for Kids
While certain specialized tools are quite helpful and make culturing fruit flies much easier, you can-and many have-culture and breed fruit flies with minimal equipment. You need simple, clean, and secure (with tight-fitting tops) containers with suitable food to raise the flies in a magnifying glass so you can look at physical features too difficult to spot with the naked eye a suitable way to transfer flies from one container. Beyond that, you would do well to come up with a way to anesthetize your flies long enough to allow sorting them by sex and by physical traits, but not so long that you kill them. Many simple systems thesis use carbon dioxide generated by something like alka-seltzer tablets that release mainly carbon dioxide as they "fizz.". I have raised fruit flies both "professionally" (in a lab for a college course i taught) and for hobby use to feed other critters at home. At home, i made simple media with baby food (Pablum) mixed with bananas, placed the media in small mason jars that had cheesecloth or screen attached to the lid's ring, used a length of plastic or fiberglass window-screening in the jars to give adults. I used the Alka-seltzer tablets in a small jar to which I had fitted a length of aquarium tubing to transport the carbon dioxide from that jar to my capture jar or a petri dish and put the flies to sleep for just a few. I wanted wingless flies for my colony to make it easier for my anoles and other small lizard and my fish to catch the flies.