When he asked for his wife to be sent to cambridge, his mother disapproved. Though his health was failing, ramanujan never let his family know. However, he wrote to a friend, ramalingam, who was also in England, telling him of a high and persistent fever he had recently, and discussing his bad food situation. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and a severe vitamin deficiency and was confined to a sanatorium. Early in 1918, before his election. R.S., ramanujan attempted an unsuccessful suicide, lying down on train tracks, waiting for an approaching train. Fortunately, the driver immediately stopped the train.
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Ramanujan must have reached these results by pure intuition. Many of the results apparently came to his mind without any effort. Ramanujan was awarded. Degree in March 1916 for his work on highly composite numbers, which was published as a paper in the journal of the london Mathematical Society. He was the second Indian to become a fellow of the royal Society (F.R.S.) in 1918, and he became one of the youngest Fellows in the entire history of the royal Society. He was elected "for his investigation in Elliptic Functions and the Theory of Numbers." On October 13, 1918, he became the first Indian to be elected a fellow of Trinity college, cambridge. 23 Based on his accomplishments, he was awarded an annual stipend equivalent to 250 euros for six years, business without any conditions attached. Illness and return to India plagued by health problems throughout his life, living in a country far from home, and obsessively involved with his mathematics, ramanujan's health worsened in England, perhaps exacerbated by stress and the scarcity of vegetarian food during the first World War. In addition, he felt lonely and often struggled with depression. Correspondence with his wife was irregular.
Following his old work habits, he worked for 24 hours at a stretch, slept a little, and woke up to continue where he left off. Professor Littlewood recalled, ramanujan lived with numbers. While at Cambridge, ramanujans use of intuition to prove theories and solve mathematical problems was brought to attention. He was advised to attend a class by Arthur Berry, tutor in Mathematics. Berry recalls, i was working out some formulas on the blackboard. I was looking at Ramanujan from time to time to see whether he was following what I was doing. At one stage ramanujans face was beaming and he appeared to be greatly excited. He then got up from his seat, went to the blackboard and wrote some of the results which I had not british yet proved.
This scholarship was later extended to five years. He spent the five years in Cambridge collaborating with degenerative Hardy and Littlewood and published some of his findings there. Hardy and Ramanujan had highly contrasting personalities. Their collaboration was a clash of different cultures, beliefs, and working styles. Hardy was an atheist and an apostle of proof and mathematical rigor, whereas Ramanujan was a deeply religious man and relied very strongly on his intuition. While in England, hardy tried his best to fill the gaps in Ramanujan's education without interrupting his spell of inspiration. Ramanujan continued his usual working habits and principles at Cambridge. A strict vegetarian, he cooked about his own food, mostly rice with papad, and sometimes vegetarian soup. He hardly left his room except to meet Professor Hardy or Professor Littlewood.
Upon reading the initial unsolicited missive by an unknown and untrained Indian mathematician,. Hardy and his colleague. Littlewood concluded, "not one theorem could have been set in the most advanced mathematical examination in the world." 22 Although Hardy was one of the foremost mathematicians of his day and an expert in a number of fields that Ramanujan was writing about, he commented. A single look at them is enough to show that they could only be written down by a mathematician of the highest class." 22 Life in England After some initial skepticism, hardy replied with comments, requesting proofs for some of the discoveries, and began. Ramanujan was at first apprehensive to travel overseas, for religious reasons, but eventually his well-wishers prevailed upon him and he agreed to go to England. Among those who spoke for Ramanujan are gilbert Walker, head of the meteorological Department, Professor Littlehailes of Presidency college, madras, and Sir Francis Spring, who met the governor of Madras to plead the case, so that Hardys plans of Ramanujans coming to cambridge would succeed. A total. 10,000 (10,000 Rupees) was collected for his travel to England. Furthermore, a sum equivalent to 250 euros per annum was granted for two years.
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He failed favourite again in the next college he joined but continued to pursue independent research in mathematics. At this point in his life, he lived in extreme poverty and was often near the point of starvation. Adulthood in India in 1909, ramanujan was married to a nine-year old bride, janaki ammal, as per the customs of India at that time, and began searching for a job. With his collection of mathematical results, he traveled door to door around the city of Madras (now Chennai) looking for a clerical position. Eventually, he found a position in the accountant general's office and subsequently in the accounts section of the madras Port Trust. Ramanujan wanted to focus his time completely on mathematics and needed financial help to carry on his research.
He solicited support from many influential Indians and published several papers in Indian mathematical journals, but was unsuccessful in his attempts to foster sponsorship. It might be the case that he was supported by ramachandra rao, then the collector of the nellore district and a distinguished civil servant. Rao, an amateur mathematician himself, was the uncle of the well-known mathematician,. Ananda rao, who went on to become the Principal of the Presidency college. Following his supervisor's advice, ramanujan, in late 1912 and early 1913, sent letters and samples of his theorems to three cambridge academics:. The first two professors returned his letters without any comments. On the other hand, hardy had the foresight to quickly recognize ramanujan as a genius.
17 he completed mathematical exams in half the allotted time, and showed a familiarity with infinite series. When he was sixteen, ramanujan came across the book, a synopsis of elementary results in pure and applied mathematics written by george. 18 This book was a collection of over 6,000 theorems and formulas in Algebra, trigonometry, geometry, and Calculus. It introduced him to the world of mathematics. Carrs book contained no proofs, and this, in turn, inspired Ramanujans young mind to greatness. Taking the lack of proofs for the formulas as a challenge, he started working out every one of them, and eventually made his way into higher mathematics.
The next year, he had independently developed and investigated the bernoulli numbers and had calculated Euler's constant up to 15 decimal places. 19 His peers commented that they "rarely understood him" and "stood in respectful awe" of him. 17 Once, when in high school, he found that a formula he had thought original with him actually went back 150 years. Mortified, he hid the paper on which he had written it in the roof of the house. When he graduated from Town High in 1904, ramanujan was awarded the. Ranganatha rao prize for mathematics by the school's headmaster, Krishnaswami iyer. Iyer introduced Ramanujan as an outstanding student who deserved scores higher than the maximum possible marks. 17 he received a scholarship to study at government College in Kumbakonam, 20 known as the "Cambridge of south India." 21 However, ramanujan was so intent on studying mathematics that he could not focus on any other subjects and failed most of them, losing his.
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12, at the nashville kangayan Primary School, ramanujan performed well. Just before the age of ten, in november 1897, he passed his primary examinations in English, tamil, geography, and arithmetic. With his scores, he finished first in the district. 13 In 1898, his mother gave birth to a healthy boy named lakshmi narasimhan. 8 That year, ramanujan entered Town Higher Secondary School where he encountered formal mathematics for the first time. 14 by age 11, he had exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students, who were tenants at his home. He was later lent books on advanced trigonometry written. 15 16 he completely mastered this book by the age of 13 and he discovered sophisticated theorems on his own. By 14, his true genius was evident; he achieved merit certificates and academic awards throughout his school career and also assisted the school in the logistics of assigning its 1,200 students (each with their own needs) to its 35 teachers.
11, after his paternal grandfather died, he was sent back to his maternal grandparents, who were now living in Madras. He did not like school in Madras, and he tried to avoid going to school. His family enlisted a local to make sure he would stay in school. Within six months, ramanujan was back in Kumbakonam again. 11, since ramanujan's father was at work most of the day, his mother took care of him as a child. He had a close relationship with her. From her, he learned about tradition, the caste system, essay and the hindu puranas. He learned to sing religious songs, to attend pujas at the temple, and to cultivate his eating habits—all of which were necessary for him to be a good.
mother gave birth to a son named Sadagopan. The newborn died less than three months later. In December 1889, ramanujan had smallpox and fortunately recovered, unlike thousands of others in the Thanjavur district who succumbed to the disease that year. 8, he moved with his mother to her parents' house in Kanchipuram, near Madras. In november 1891, and again in 1894, his mother gave birth, but both children died before their first birthdays. On October 1, 1892, ramanujan was enrolled at the local school. 9, in March 1894, he was moved to a telugu medium school. After his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court official in Kanchipuram, 10, ramanujan and his mother moved back to kumbakonam and he was enrolled in the kangayan Primary School.
2, although a small number of these results turned out to be incorrect, and some were already known to other mathematicians, most offer of his results have been proven to be valid. 3, many of his results were both original and highly unconventional, and these have inspired a vast amount of further research. 4, however, some of his major discoveries have been rather slow to enter the mathematical mainstream. Recently, ramanujan's formulas have found applications in the fields of crystallography and string theory. The, ramanujan journal, an international publication, was launched to publish work in all the areas of mathematics that were influenced by ramanujan. Life, childhood and early life, ramanujan's home on Sarangapani Street, kumbakonam. Ramanujan was born on December 22, 1887, in Erode, tamil Nadu, india, at the place of residence of his maternal grandparents. 6, his father,. Srinivasa iyengar, worked as a clerk in a sari shop and hailed from the district of Thanjavur.
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Previous (Sri lanka next (Srivijaya for the algebraic geometer see. Srinivasa ramanujan iyengar (Tamil: ) (December 22, 1887 April 26, 1920) was an Indian mathematician who is regarded as one of the most brilliant mathematicians in recent history. 1, he made substantial contributions in the areas of analysis, number theory, infinite series, and essay continued fractions. Modern analysis holds him equal with. Leonhard Euler of the eighteenth century and Carl Gustav jacob Jacobi of the nineteenth century. Despite his struggles with poverty and ill health, and his lack of formal training in higher mathematics, ramanujan devoted himself to the subject he loved and submitted some of his early work to academics. Recognizing his talent,. Hardy arranged for him to study and work at Cambridge, which he did for five years, until he became too ill to continue. Through the work he did independently and in collaboration with Hardy, ramanujan compiled nearly 3,900 results (mostly identities and equations) during his short lifetime.