American spelling is also becoming more commonplace in Britain (e.g. Jail for gaol, wagon for waggon, reflection for reflexion, etc although some Americanized spelling changes actually go back centuries (e.g. Words like horror, terror, superior, emperor and governor were originally spelled as horrour, terrour, superiour, emperour and governour in Britain according to johnson's 1755 "Dictionary", even if other words like colour, humour and honour had resisted such changes). The practice of transporting cheap black labour from western Africa to the new World was begun by the Spaniards in the 16th Century, and it had been also used by the portuguese, dutch and French, but it was adopted in earnest by the British. The British had established numerous outposts in the caribbean (dubbed the west Indies by columbus out of the conviction that he had reached the spice islands of the Indies, or Asia, by a western route and had developed a whole trading empire to take advantage. The labour-intensive work on tobacco, cocoa, cotton and particularly sugar plantations required large numbers of cheap workers, and the Atlantic slave trade triangle (Britain - west Africa - americas) was developed to supply it, although soon a demand also grew for household servants.
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From the deliberately misspelled and dialectical works of Artemus Ward and Josh Billings to popular novels like harriet beecher Stowe's Uncle tom's Cabin (1852) and Mark Twain's Huckleberry finn (1884 this American vernacular spread rapidly, and became in the process more publicly acceptable both. Many Spanish words also made their way into American English during the expansion and settlement of the Spanish-influenced American West, including words like armadillo, alligator, canyon, cannibal, guitar, mosquito, mustang, ranch, rodeo, stampede, tobacco, tornado and vigilante (some of which were also originally derived from. To a lesser extent, French words, from the French presence in the louisiana area and in Canada, contributed loanwords like gopher, prairie, depot, cache, cent and dime, as well as French-derived place names like detroit, illinois, des moines, etc. The appraisals number of American coinings later exported back to the mother country should not be underestimated. They include commonly used word like commuter, bedrock, sag, snag, soggy, belittle, lengthy, striptease, gimmick, jeans, teenager, hangover, teetotal, fudge, publicity, joyride, blizzard, showdown, uplift, movie, obligate, stunt, notify, redneck, businessman, cocktail, skyscraper, bootleg, highfalutin, guesstimate, raincoat, cloudburst, nearby, worthwhile, smooch, genocide, hindsight and graveyard. Even the word roundabout originally came from America, even though traffic circles hardly exist there. Perhaps the quintessential Americanism is ok ( okay which has become one of the best known and most widespread terms throughout the whole world. Its origins are somewhat obscure and still hotly debated, but it seems to have come into common usage in America during the 1830s. Many of these Americanisms were met with a certain amount of snobbery in Britain, and many words thought to be American in origin were vilified as uncouth and inferior by the British intelligentsia (even though many of those denigrated actually turned out to. Today, some 4,000 words are used differently in the usa and Britain ( lift / elevator, tap / faucet, bath / tub, curtains / drapes, biscuit / cookie and boot / trunk are just some of the better known ones) and, increasingly, american usage. Truck for lorry, airplane for aeroplane, etc).
Igloo, anorak, toboggan, canoe, kayak, parka, muskeg, caribou, moose, etc as well as the French influence (e.g. Serviette, tuque ) from Lower Canada/Quebec. Image lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-06) (from wikipedia ) In 1813, Thomas Jefferson wrote in desk a letter: "The new circumstances under which we are placed call for new words, new phrases, and for the transfer of old words to new objects. An American dialect will therefore be formed". As the settlers (including a good proportion of Irish and Scots, with their own distinctive accents and usages of English) pushed westward, new terms were indeed introduced, and these pioneers were much less reticent to adopt native words or, indeed, to make up their own. The journals of Lewis and Clark, written as they explored routes to the west coast in 1804-6, contain over 500 native words (mainly animals, plants and food). The wild outlands west of the mississippi river gave us the word outlandish to describe its idiosyncratic characters. John Adams much-vaunted plain English took a back seat in the hands of colourful characters like davy crockett (who was himself of Scots-Irish decent) and others, who saw western expansion as an excuse to expand the language with new words and quirky americanisms like skedaddle.
British interests in Canada did not coalesce until the early 18th Century but, business after the Treaty of Paris of 1763, Britain wrested control of most of eastern Canada from the French, and it became an important British colony. It was the war of 1812 against the Americans, as much as Confederation and independence from Britain in 1867, that definitively cemented the separate identity of English Canada. English in Canada has also been influenced by successive waves of immigration, from the influx of loyalists from the south fleeing the American revolution, to the British and Irish who were encouraged to settle the land in the early 19th Century to the huge immigration. But, more than anything, the speech of the loyalists arriving in southern Ontario from states like pennsylvania and New York, formed the basis of Canadian speech and its accent (including the distinctive pronunciation of the ou in words like house and out, and the. Modern Canadian English tends to show very little regional diversity in pronunciation, even compared to the United States, the Irish-tinged dialect of Newfoundland being far and away the most distinctive dialect. Canadian English today contains elements of British English and American English in its vocabulary (it also uses a kind of hybrid of American and British spelling as well several distinctive canadianisms (like hoser, hydro, chesterfield, etc, and the ubiquitous eh? At the end of many sentences). Its vocabulary has been influenced by loanwords from the native peoples of the north (e.g.
A few isolated communities, like the so-called Tidewater communities around Chesapeake bay in Virginia (who were mainly descended from settlers from Somerset and Gloucestershire in the west country of England, unlike the massachusetts settlers who were largely from the eastern counties of England have managed. But, by the 19th Century, a standard variety of American English had developed in most of the country, based on the dialect of the mid-Atlantic states with its characteristic flat a and strong final. Today, standard American English, also known as General American, is based on a generalized Midwestern accent, and is familiar to us from American films, radio and newscasters. Image british Colonization of North America (1713-1763) (from georgetown College ) American language zealots like john Adams, benjamin Franklin and noah Webster revelled in the prospect of a plain English, free of the regional dialects and class distinctions of Britain. Long before the declaration of Independence, british visitors to America often remarked that the average American spoke much better English than the average Englishman. After the American War of Independence of, there was some discussion about whether English should remain the national language, but it was never really in any doubt, and was not even mentioned in the new Constitution (even today, the usa does not have an official. The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America. There had been British, French and Portuguese expeditions to the east coast of Canada even before the end of the 15th Century, but the first permanent European settlement was by France in 1608.
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Some words needed to describe the native american lifestyle were also paper accepted (e.g. Canoe, squaw, papoose, wigwam, moccasin, tomahawk although many other supposedly native-derived words and phrases (such as brave, peace-pipe, pale-face, war-path, etc) were actually spurious and a product of the fertile imaginations of 19th Century American romantic novelists. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers (e.g. Foothill, notch, bluff, gap, divide, watershed, clearing, etc). Immigration into America was not limited to English speakers, though.
In the second half of the 19th Century, in particular, over 30 million poured into the country from all parts of the world. At the peak of immigration, from 1901 to 1905, America absorbed a million Italians, a million Austro-hungarians, reporting half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries. Many nationalities established their own centres: the Amish or Pennsylvania dutch (actually germans, as in deutsch) tended to stay in their isolated communities, and developed a distinctive english with a strong German accent and an idiosyncratic syntax; many germans also settled in Wisconsin and Indiana;. Often foreigners were despised or laughed at, and the newcomers found it in their best interests to integrate well and to observe as much uniformity of speech and language as possible. This, as well as the improvements in transportation and communication, led to fewer, and less distinct, dialects than in the much smaller area of Britain, although there are some noticeable (and apparently quite arbitrary) regional differences, even within some states.
Parts of the new World had already been long colonized by the French, Spanish and Dutch, but English settlers like the pilgrim Fathers (and those who soon followed them) went there to stay, not just to search for riches or trading opportunities. They wanted to establish themselves permanently, to work the land, and to preserve their culture, religion and language, and this was a crucial factor in the survival and development of English in North America. The german Iron Chancellor Otto van Bismarck would later ruefully remark that the most significant event of the 20th Century will be the fact that the north Americans speak english. Interestingly, some English pronunciations and usages froze when they arrived in America while they continued to evolve in Britain itself (sometimes referred to as colonial lag so that, in some respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modern British English. Perhaps the best-known example is the American use of gotten which has long since faded from use in Britain (even though forgotten has survived).
But the American use of words like fall for the British autumn, trash for rubbish, hog for pig, sick for ill, guess for think, and loan for lend are all examples of this kind of anachronistic British word usage. America kept several words (such as burly, greenhorn, talented and scant ) that had been largely dropped in Britain (although some have since been recovered and words like lumber and lot soon acquired their specific American meanings. Something approaching Shakespearean speech can sometimes be encountered in isolated valleys in the Appalachian or ozarks, where words like afeard, yourn, sassy and consarn, and old pronunciations like jine for join, can still sometimes be heard. The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many native american words into the English language. Most of the early settlers were austere puritans and they were quite conservative in their adoption of native words, which were largely restricted to terms for native animals and foods (e.g. Raccoon, opossum, moose, chipmunk, skunk, tomato, squash, hickory, etc). In many cases, the original indigenous words were very difficult to render in English, and have often been mangled almost beyond recognition (e.g. Squash is from the native quonterquash or asquutasquash, depending on the region; racoon is from raugraughcun or rahaugcum ; hickory is from pawcohiccora ; etc).
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However, in retrospect, this does not seem to have happened and, in the age of instantaneous global communication, it now seems ever less likely to occur in the future. It was largely during the late modern period that the United States, newly independent from Britain as of 1783, established its pervasive influence on the world. The English colonization of North America had begun as early as 1600. Jamestown, virginia was founded in 1607, and the pilgrim Fathers settled in Plymouth, massachusetts in 1620. The first settlers were, then, contemporaries of Shakespeare (1564-1616 bacon (1561-1626) and Donne (1572-1631 and would have spoken a similar dialect. The new land was described by one settler as a hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beasts and wild men, and half of the settlers were dead within weeks of their arrival, unaccustomed to the harsh winter. In fact, the colony would probably have gone the way of the earlier ill-fated roanoke island biography settlement attempt of 1584 were it not for the help of an American native called Squanto, who had learned English from English sailors.
It was taken very much for granted by the British colonial mentality of the time that extending the English language and culture to the undeveloped and backward countries of Africa and Asia was a desirable thing. The profit motive may have been foremost, but there was a certain amount of altruistic motivation as well, and many saw it as a way of bringing order and political unity to these chaotic and internecine regions (as well as binding them ever more strongly. To some extent, it is true that the colonies were happy to learn the language in order to profit from British industrial and technological advances. But colonialism was a two-way phenomenon, and Britains dealings with these exotic countries, as well as the increase in world trade in general during this time, led to the introduction of many foreign loanwords into English. For instance, australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself) like boomerang, kangaroo, budgerigar, etc. But India gave us such everyday words as pyjamas, thug, bungalow, cot, jungle, loot, bangle, shampoo, candy, tank and many others. The rise of so-called New Englishes (modern quality variants or dialects of the language, such as Australian English, south African English, caribbean English, south Asian English, etc) raised, for some, the spectre of the possible fragmentation of the English language into mutually unintelligible languages, much. As early as 1789, for example, noah Webster had predicted a language in North America as different from the future language of England as the modern Dutch, danish and Swedish are from the german or from one another.
amalgamating and fusing existing English words into a descriptive combination were particularly popular (e.g. Railway, horsepower, typewriter, cityscape, airplane, etc). Colonialism and the British Empire back to top British colonialism had begun as early as the 16th Century, but gathered speed and momentum between the 18th and 20th Century. At the end of the 16th Century, mother-tongue english speakers numbered just 5-7 million, almost all of them in the British Isles; over the next 350 years, this increased almost 50-fold, 80 of them living outside of Britain. At the height of the British Empire (in the late 19th and early 20th Century britain ruled almost one quarter of the earths surface, from Canada to australia to India to the caribbean to Egypt to south Africa to singapore. Although the English language had barely penetrated into wales, Ireland and the Scottish Highlands by the time of Shakespeare, just two hundred years later, in 1780, john Adams was confident enough to be able to claim (with a certain amount of foresight, but quite reasonably). In 1852, the german linguist, jacob Grimm, called English "the language of the world and predicted it was "destined to reign in future with still more extensive sway over all parts of the globe".
At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 17 was written in English. Another English speaking country, the usa, continued the English language dominance of new technology and innovation with inventions like electricity, the telegraph, the telephone, the phonograph, the sewing machine, the computer, etc. The industrial and scientific advances of the Industrial revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. To a large extent, this relied on the classical languages, latin and Greek, in which scholars and scientists of the period were usually well versed. Although words like oxygen, protein, nuclear and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, they could essay be (and were) created from Latin and Greek roots. Lens, refraction, electron, chromosome, chloroform, caffeine, centigrade, bacteria, chronometer and claustrophobia are just a few of the other science-based words that were created during this period of scientific innovation, along with a whole host of -ologies and -onomies, like biology, petrology, morphology, histology, palaeontology, ethnology. Many more new words were coined for the new products, machines and processes that were developed at this time (e.g.
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History late modern english (c. The Industrial and Scientific revolution, colonialism and the British Empire, the new World. American dialect, black English, britains Other Colonies, language reform. Literary developments 20th Century, present day, the Industrial and Scientific revolution, back to top. Image, steam-powered looms were just one of the innovations of the Industrial revolution (from, how Stuff Works, original from Getty Images the dates may be rather arbitrary, but the main distinction between Early modern and Late modern English (or just Modern English as. Late modern English accumulated many more words as a result of two main historical factors: the Industrial revolution, which necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed; and the rise of the British Empire, during which time English adopted many foreign. No single one of the socio-cultural developments of the 19th Century could have established English as a world language, but together they did just that. Most of the innovations of the Industrial revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century were of British origin, including the harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery, the development offer of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries, and the.