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That he is Muslim by religion but Hindu by culture. Let Indonesia with its Muslim religion and native hindu culture be the model for the muslim in India, pakistan, and Bangladesh. 138) Malkanis prescription is not possible, says Amrik singh, either in terms of physical or political considerations or in terms of their historical evolution. While hinduism has a hoary tradition behind it, the pre-Islamic traditions in Indonesia are not even clearly defined. Incidentally, at the time of writing this review a mammoth gathering of Muslim men and women with hijab (about 100,000) including scholars and religious leaders from different parts of the world, is deliberating in Indonesias capital, jakarta, in search of ways to establish a single. But that is another story that needs to be considered in its own context. The author feels that the effort to remove the present divide has largely to be on the part of the congress party. The removal of the divide is linked with economic and political development of the country.

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It cannot have a central doctrine because in its horse majestic sweep it takes up all that comes its way and adapts it to its over-widening purpose, rejecting finally what is wholly alien and cannot be accommodated at all. Attempts have been made to build embankments around this ocean-like reality to give it a shape and definition. But these have not succeeded. The spirit of India has refused to be contained. To put it differently, hinduism has refused to be organised. By the same token, it has refused to be communalised. 135) Amrik singh reacts to jains stipulations: While it is true that Hinduism has refused to be organised and it has refused to be communalised, how is it that today we witness what Nehru once described as non-Muslim aggression among Muslims? The author says that this phrase of Nehru occurs in one of his letters addressed to the Chief Ministers after the police action in Hyderabad. In the context of the hindutva philosophy, it would be relevant to consider the following" from the late. Malkani who became known as the Editor essay of the rss mouthpiece, organiser, and an ideologue of the Bharatiya janata party: The muslim Indian should realise that Hinduism is not a religion, but a culture.

That these words were written several years after the partition makes them even more relevant than they would have been otherwise, says Dr Amrik singh and every rightly. 200) Members of both the communities can gain from introspecting in the light of the late historians observation. At another place, the author"s Girilal jain who, according to him, apart from being a leading journalist, was a keen student of Hinduism: Unlike the muslims, the hindus do not possess a vision of the future, which is rooted in the past for. While, they would, if challenged, vaguely own up all Indian history up to the beginning of the muslim invasions of north India in the 11th century, they do not identify themselves with any particular period. Indeed, they have little sense of history. So how can they have a golden age and how can a people without such a sense engage in revivalism? What can they seek to revive? Hinduism is an arbitrary imposition on a highly variegated civilisation, which is truly oceanic in its range. Such a civilisation cannot be enclosed in a narrow doctrine.

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Much discussion is available about the factors responsible for this conflict leading to great the partition of the country along with its independence, the roles of leaders of the two communities during those traumatic years and, indeed, the shape this conflict has taken in todays India. The book is in the form of notes on different subjects relevant to its theme, probably written at different points of time. But it contains a wealth of information on the nature and cause of the divide—the machinations of the British rulers, the folly of partition, the practice of separate electorates, and even the complexities of adult franchise friendship and a joint electorate, the polarisation between the two. The author has laid great emphasis on the need for pluralism and for a policy in the direction of reducing the hindu-muslim divide and work towards what has been described as pluralism, as he puts. Dr Amrik singh has given some very perceptive opinions of acknowledged experts on Hinduism and Islam, some approvingly while others with his note of critique. Consider the" from the eminent historian, Prof. Habib (whom he describes as the tallest historian of medieval India a hindu feels it is his duty to dislike those whom he has been taught to consider the enemies of his religion and his ancestors; the muslim, lured into the false belief that. Even if the muslims eight centuries ago were as bad as they were painted, would there be any sense in holding the present generation responsible for their deeds? It is but an imaginative tie that joins the modern Hindu with Harshvardhana or Asoka, or the modern Muslim with Shahabuddin or Mahmud.

One would, in fact, like to go back to much older times, than the last thousand years. It may be pointed out that composite culture had been the feature of India even before the beginning of the first century. The contributing influences all these years had been the teachings of gautam Buddha, the vedic and Vedantic ideals of tolerance and spiritual values, the disarming qualities of the sufi value and the noble sentiments of the Bhakti movement, and, more recently, the thoughts of personalities. While the commingling of Sufi and Bhakti ideals is an extremely cherished heritage of the past, the state of confrontation, in recent times, one has to admit, between the campaign of Tableegh and Shuddhi (mentioned by the author while stating the effort of Hinduism for. 132) is a tragic episode in our saga of composite culture : like a bad dream one would perhaps like to forget. Even without agreeing fully with the basic statement of the author with regard to a thousand year old divide one would like to praise him for covering the subject of Hindu-muslim divide in a very comprehensive manner particularly in the recent past. Dr Amrik singh has covered the entire ground by recounting how the spirit of mutual understanding and conciliation gave way to conflict between the muslims and Hindus.

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nisarg maza mitra essay

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Edu Princeton University Press mainstream weekly mainstream, vol xlv, no 38 book review: The hindu-muslim divide : a fresh look by Amrik singh Sunday 9 September 2007 (book review) The hindu-muslim divide : a fresh look by Amrik singh; Vitasta publishing Pvt. Ltd., new Delhi; 2007;. It is ironic that around the time we are celebrating 60 years of Indias independence, the subject under discussion here is the hindu- muslim divide, instead of it being harmony between members of different communities in our free country. But one has to face the facts and hence this discourse. The author of the book under review, Dr Amrik singh, starts it with a painful note: As generally recognised, the hindu-muslim divide has existed in India for about thousand years. The partition of India into India and pakistan in 1947 was the latest instalment in this longstanding dispute. 3) But soon he sounds a note of optimism: But one thing is clear that, despite signals to the contrary, the two warring communities are nearer an understanding with each other than ever before.

No convincing reason is provided for the optimistic note, and the author goes further and adds that the situation is likely to change in about half a century or more (what a satisfying thought! even though it is stated: In these matters, no one can be precise. It is not very easy to agree with the authors assertion about the thousand year old Hindu-muslim divide. For, India is known for its composite culture, and quite a good part of the last thousand years have been known to be marked by considerable harmony with some aberrations. But aberrations boxed are at times unavoidable and even the intra-community conflicts and divisive trends have been there in the concerned groups. When the pakistani leader, zulfikar Ali Bhutto, during the more fanatic phase of his political life (something the author makes a reference to) had talked about a thousand year war, his bravado had the future in mind.

Kashmir's small Brahmin community, the pandits, whom rai sees as key collaborators of the dogra project, emerge at least one point in Zutshi's book as its most bitter opponents. Notions of a homogeneous Kashmiri muslim identity, zutshi's analysis suggests, need to be tempered by an understanding of the working of caste, class, and ideology. Actjusttop urlml Customer review The Challenging Natures of Kashmir, may 25, 2007. Dodge Amazon Verified Purchase(What's this?) "Hindu rulers, muslim Subjects" covers the macro historical, social, religious, and political highlights in Kashmir from about 1840 to 1950. It is a fascinating view into a world far distant but fearfully close as two modern nuclear armed adversaries seek domination over the mystical lands of Kashmir. This is a book of essential preliminary understandings to the current situation in the region and of the volumes I have encountered is the best.

I hope the author contemplates another book dealing with the post 1947 era. For those seeking recent political happenings, i suggest "Kashmir" by sumantra bose. M/review/R1tliumbutbr1d hindu rulers, muslim Subjects: Islam, rights, and the history of Kashmir by Mridu rai maryum's review excellent book! Really worthwhile reading and very meticulous research on the impact of colonialism on kashmir. One of the few books that looks at the kashmiri conflict from the perspective of the kashmiris and not as a pawn in an india-pakistan chess match. M/review/show/370620 Paper.00 31 off regular price paper:.95 isbn13: File created: 10/18/2009 questions and comments to: inceton.

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Like the other semi-independent states of princely India, kashmir witnessed a constant struggle for influence between the monarchy and the imperial government. It was to become the site of a number of other contestations: of monarch against democrat; of empire against nationalist; of Hindu against Muslim; of peasant against landlord. 2 rai sees this century as one in which a "Hindu State" was formed, the consequence of the dogra monarchy's search for legitimacy. Lacking any real basis for its sovereignty over the peoples whose destinies it now controlled, it responded by inventing a history in which the dogra dynasty represented both the hindu faith loyalty and Rajput martial tradition. Rai maps this process by carefully documenting the dogra monarchy's growing control of Hindu religious practice in Kashmir, notably through state-controlled trusts. Since the state was Hindu in character, rai concludes, "religion and politics became inextricably intertwined in defining and expressing the protest of Kashmiri muslims against their rulers" (pp. 3 Zutshi arrives at similar conclusions, but with considerably more attention to nuance and detail. Her study of the workings of Dogra rule suggests the need for a careful examination of what, if about any, meaning the notion of a "Hindu state" may have actually had to contemporaries. There was, zutshi's narrative suggests, no unilinear project of Hinduization under the dogras; rather, there were complex and fluid processes of collaboration and conflict among various categories of elites, both Hindu and Muslim.

nisarg maza mitra essay

Languages of Belonging: Islam, regional Identity, and the welty making of Kashmir. New York: Oxford University Press. Ever since the India-pakistan near war of 20012002, we have been subject to an incessant flow of words on the kashmir conflict. Sadly, this deluge has done little to enhance our knowledge of the subject. Bar changing the odd adjectives, adding a little detail, or inserting the views of the proverbial man on the street, little has been added to sumit Ganguly's Crisis in Kashmir: Portents of War, Prospects of peace (1997) or Victoria schofield's Kashmir in Conflict: India, pakistan. Two new histories have been widely applauded for constituting a happy break with this dismal tradition. Little attention has been paid, however, to the considerable theoretical and empirical problems presented by Mridu rai's and Chitralekha zutshi's books. 1 Both rai and Zutshi deal with a critical period in the history of Jammu and Kashmir: the century of Dogra monarchical rule that preceded the independence of India and pakistan, and the division of the state between the two powers in the course. It was in this period that the welter of territories that constitute modern Kashmir were welded together under a single power, a consequence of Britain's handing over of the region to maharaja gulab Singh, a prince who sided with the empire's war of conquest against.

Studies, endorsements: "Hindu rulers, muslim Subjects is a brilliant work of historical scholarship that will become. It a pioneering historical study of rights, religion, and regional identity in Kashmir that could also inspire future studies on other regions of the subcontinent."-sugata bose, harvard University "This is a major contribution to kashmir studies and should set the standard for the next generation. Challenging the existing literature, this work is heady and fresh-and deserves attention."-Alexander evans, king's College london and the royal Institute of International Affairs "Mridu rai's book reminds us powerfully of the crucial importance of colonial history to the present. She is able to de-essentialize religion and secularism in the kashmir conflict, which is very useful in light of India's secularist claims and the ways in which some sociologists have theorized those claims. Carefully researched and lucidly conceptualized and written, this book forwards an important thesis on an important topic."-peter van der veer, University of Amsterdam Table of Contents: Acknowledgements x Abbreviations xii introduction 1 chapter 1: Territorializing sovereignity: The dilemmas of Control and Collaboration 18 chapter. Hindu rulers, muslim Subjects: Islam, rights, and the history of Kashmir. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cloth.00, paper.50.

Focusing on authority, sovereignty, legitimacy, and community rights, she explains how Kashmir's modern Muslim identity emerged. Rai shows how the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was formed as the east India company marched into India beginning in the late eighteenth century. After the 1857 rebellion, outright annexation was abandoned as the British Crown took over and princes were incorporated into the imperial framework as junior partners. But, rai argues, scholarship on other regions of India has led to misconceptions about colonialism, not least that a "hollowing of the crown" occurred throughout as Brahman came to dominate over King. In Kashmir the dogra kings maintained firm control. They rode roughshod over the interests of the vast majority of their Kashmiri muslim subjects, planting the seeds of a political movement that remains in thrall to a religiosity thrust upon it for the past 150 years. Review: "rai's contribution lies in the extremely thorough and painstaking documentation that she provides when tracing the marginalization of the native inhabitants of Kahmir, writing the chicanery of the British, and the fecklessness of the dogra rulers. Her account of the growth. Muslim religio-political consciousness in the early part of the twentieth century.

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Permalink, raw Message, hindu rulers, muslim Subjects: Islam, rights, and the history of Kashmir. Mridu rai, paper.95 320. 5 x 8, paper.00. Full Text of this book, thanks to writing the google. disputed between India and pakistan, kashmir contains a large majority of Muslims subject to the laws of a predominantly hindu and increasingly "Hinduized" India. How did religion and politics become so enmeshed in defining the protest of Kashmir's Muslims against Hindu rule? This book reaches beyond standard accounts that look to the 1947 partition of India for an explanation. Examining the 100-year period before that landmark event, during which Kashmir was ruled by hindu. Dogra kings under the aegis of the British, Mridu rai highlights the collusion that shaped a decisively hindu sovereignty over a subject.

nisarg maza mitra essay
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