The roman Republic ended in 27 bc, when Augustus proclaimed the roman Empire. The two centuries that followed are known as the pax romana, a period of unprecedented peace, prosperity, and political stability in most of Europe. 59 The empire continued to expand under emperors such as Antoninus pius and Marcus Aurelius, who spent time on the Empire's northern border fighting Germanic, pictish and Scottish tribes. 60 61 The Empire began to decline in the 3rd century, particularly in the west. Christianity was legalised by constantine i in 313 ad after three centuries of imperial persecution. Constantine also permanently moved the capital of the empire from Rome to the city of byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour (modern-day istanbul ) in 330.
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51 Classical antiquity main article: Classical antiquity see also: Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome Ancient Greece was the john founding culture of Western civilisation. Western democratic and rationalist culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece. 52 The letter Greeks city-state, the polis, was the fundamental political unit of classical Greece. 52 In 508 bc, cleisthenes instituted the world's first democratic system of government in Athens. 53 The Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by european philosophers and idealists. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, socrates and Plato ; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides ; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer ; 54 in drama with Sophocles and Euripides,. In the course of the 5th century bc, several of the Greek city states would ultimately check the Achaemenid Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-persian Wars, considered a pivotal moment in world history, 58 as the 50 years of peace that followed are known. The roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117. Greece was followed by rome, which left its mark on law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, government and many more key aspects in western civilisation. 52 Expanding from their base in Italy beginning in the 3rd century bc, the romans gradually expanded to eventually rule the entire mediterranean basin and western Europe by the turn of the millennium.
Between 45 bc, these central European neolithic cultures developed further to the essay west and the north, transmitting newly acquired skills in producing copper artefacts. In Western Europe the neolithic period was characterised not by large agricultural settlements but by field monuments, such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds and megalithic tombs. 46 The corded Ware cultural horizon flourished at the transition from the neolithic to the Chalcolithic. During this period giant megalithic monuments, such as the megalithic Temples of Malta and Stonehenge, were constructed throughout Western and southern Europe. 47 48 The european Bronze age began. 3200 bc in Greece with the minoan civilization on Crete, the first advanced civilization in Europe. 49 The minoans were followed by the myceneans, who collapsed suddenly around 1200 bc, ushering the european Iron Age. 50 Iron Age colonisation by the Greeks and Phoenicians gave rise to early mediterranean cities. Early Iron Age Italy and Greece from around the 8th century bc gradually gave rise to historical Classical antiquity, whose beginning is sometimes dated to 776 bc, the year the first Olympic Games.
38 In 1958, the soviet geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between the europe and Asia be drawn in textbooks from baydaratskaya bay, on the kara sea, along the eastern foot of Ural mountains, then following the Ural river until the mugodzhar Hills, and. 40 However, most geographers in the soviet Union favoured the boundary along the caucasus crest 41 and this became the standard convention in the later 20th century, although the kumaManych boundary remained in use in some 20th-century maps. History main article: History of Europe Prehistory main article: Prehistoric Europe paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France (c 15,000 BC) Homo erectus georgicus, which lived roughly.8 million years ago in georgia, is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe. 42 Other essay hominid remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, spain. 43 neanderthal man (named after the neandertal valley in Germany ) appeared in Europe 150,000 years ago and disappeared from the fossil record about 28,000 bc, with their final refuge being present-day portugal. The neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans ( Cro-magnons who appeared in Europe around 43 to 40 thousand years ago. 44 neolithic terracotta figurine from Vinča in Serbia (45004000 BC) The european neolithic period—marked by the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock, increased numbers of settlements and the widespread use of pottery—began around 7000 bc in Greece and the balkans, probably influenced. 45 It spread from the balkans along the valleys of the danube and the Rhine ( Linear Pottery culture ) and along the mediterranean coast ( Cardial culture ).
But maps produced during the 16th to 18th centuries tended to differ in how to continue the boundary beyond the don bend at Kalach-na-donu (where it is closest to the volga, now joined with it by the volgaDon Canal into territory not described in any. Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in 1725 was the first to depart from the classical Don boundary by drawing the line along the volga, following the volga north until the samara bend, along Obshchy syrt (the drainage divide between Volga and Ural ) and then north. 33 This was adopted by the russian Empire, and introduced the convention that would eventually become adopted as standard, but not without criticism by many modern analytical geographers. 34 The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between the lower Don and Samara well into the 19th century. The 1745 atlas published by the russian Academy of Sciences has the boundary follow the don beyond Kalach as far as Serafimovich before cutting north towards Arkhangelsk, while other 18th- to 19th-century mapmakers such as John Cary followed Strahlenberg's prescription. To the south, the kumaManych Depression was identified circa 1773 by a german naturalist, peter Simon Pallas, as a valley that, once upon a time, connected the Black sea and the caspian sea, 35 36 and subsequently was proposed as a natural boundary between continents. By the mid-19th century, there were three main conventions, one following the don, the volgaDon Canal and the volga, the other following the kumaManych Depression to the caspian and then the Ural river, and the third abandoning the don altogether, following the Greater caucasus watershed. The question was still treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the 1860s, with douglas Freshfield advocating the caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible citing support from various "modern geographers". 37 In Russia and the soviet Union, the boundary along the kumaManych Depression was the most commonly used as early as 1906.
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25 Europe's eastern frontier was defined in the short 1st century by geographer Strabo at the river Don. 26 The book of Jubilees described the continents as the lands given by noah to his three sons; Europe was defined as stretching from the pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar, separating it from Northwest Africa, to the don, separating it from Asia. 27 The convention received by the middle Ages and surviving into modern usage is that of the roman era used by roman era authors such as Posidonius, 28 Strabo 29 and Ptolemy, 30 who took the tanais (the modern Don river) as the boundary. The term "Europe" is first used for a cultural sphere in the carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. From that time, the term designated the sphere of influence of the western Church, as opposed to both the eastern Orthodox churches and to the Islamic world.
A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, you signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the. 31 The concept is one of the lasting legacies of the carolingian Renaissance : Europa often dubious discuss figures in the letters of Charlemagne's court scholar, Alcuin. 32 Modern definitions Further information: Regions of Europe and Core europe depiction of Europa regina queen Europe in 1582. The question of defining a precise eastern boundary of Europe arises in the early modern period, as the eastern extension of Muscovy began to include northern Asia. Throughout the middle Ages and into the 18th century, the traditional division of the landmass of Eurasia into two continents, europe and Asia, followed Ptolemy, with the boundary following the turkish Straits, the Black sea, the kerch Strait, the sea of azov and the don.
17 Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the semitic word is very poor." 18 Next to these hypotheses there is also a proto-Indo-european root *h1regos, meaning "darkness which also produced Greek erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word ōuzhōu a similar Chinese-derived term Ōshū is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the japanese name of the european Union, Ōshū rengō despite the katakana Yōroppa being more commonly used. In some turkic languages the originally persian name Frangistan land of the Franks is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa. 19 Definition Further information: List of transcontinental countries and boundaries between the continents of Earth Contemporary definition The prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe's limits to the far east are usually taken to be the Urals, the Ural river, and the caspian sea ; to the southeast, including the caucasus mountains.
21 Islands are generally grouped with the nearest continental landmass, hence Iceland is generally considered to be part of Europe, while the nearby island of Greenland is usually assigned to north America. Nevertheless, there are some exceptions based on sociopolitical and cultural differences. Cyprus is closest to Anatolia (or Asia minor), but is usually considered part of Europe both culturally and politically and is a member state of the. Malta was considered an island of Northwest Africa for centuries. 22 "Europe" as used specifically in British English may also refer to continental Europe exclusively. 23 History of the concept Early history a medieval t and O map from 1472 showing the three continents as domains of the sons of noah — asia to sem ( Shem europe to iafeth ( Japheth and Africa to Cham ( Ham ) The. As a name for a part of the known world, it is first used in the 6th century bc by Anaximander and Hecataeus. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis river (the modern rioni river ) in the caucasus, a convention still followed by herodotus in the 5th century. 24 Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, europe, asia, and Libya (Africa with the nile and the Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the river Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary.
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The name contains the elements ερύς ( eurús "wide, broad" 13 and ψ ( ōps, gen. Πός, ōpós ) "eye, face, countenance 14 hence their composite eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet statement of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-european religion and the poetry devoted. 15 For the second part compare also the divine attributes of "grey-eyed" Athena (γλαυκπις, glaukōpis ) or ox-eyed Hera (βοπις, boōpis ). There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a semitic term for "west this being either akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" (said of the sun) or Phoenician 'ereb "evening, west 16 which is at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Barry, professor in Princeton University 's near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, the country of sunset in opposition to Asu "the country of sunrise. The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek νατολή ( Anatolḗ "sun rise "east hence Anatolia ).
11 During the cold War, europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between nato in the west and the warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the berlin Wall. In 1949 the council of Europe was founded, following a speech by sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the european Union (eu a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. 12 The eu originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the european Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the eu's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls among most of its member states. The european Anthem is " Ode to joy and states celebrate peace and unity on Europe day. Contents Name further information: Europa (mythology) Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map (450 BC) In classical Greek mythology, europa ( Ancient Greek : Ερώπη, eurṓpē ) is the name of either a phoenician princess textbook or of a queen of Crete.
differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. 8 9 10 The fall of the western Roman Empire in 476 ad and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. From the Age of Discovery onwards, europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, european powers controlled at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia. The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century till the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the soviet Union and the United States took prominence.
Black, seas and the waterways of words the. 7, though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects. East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The border does not follow political boundaries, with. Turkey, russia and, kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi or 2 of the earth's surface (6.8 of land area). Politically, europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39 of the continent and comprising 15 of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11 of the world population ) as of 2016.
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This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see. For other uses, see, europe (disambiguation). Europe is a continent located entirely in the, northern Hemisphere and mostly in the. It is bordered by the. Arctic Ocean to the north, the, atlantic Ocean to the west and the, mediterranean sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part. Since around 1850, europe is most commonly considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the, ural and, caucasus mountains, qualitative the, ural river, the, caspian and.