73 Significant risks are also associated with invasive procedures, assisted delivery, and dental care in this area of the world. 73 people giving or receiving tattoos, piercings, and scarification are theoretically at risk of infection but no confirmed cases have been documented. 74 It is not possible for mosquitoes or other insects to transmit hiv. 75 Mother-to-child main articles: hiv and pregnancy and hiv and breastfeeding hiv can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breast milk, resulting in the baby also contracting hiv. 76 77 This is the third most common way in which hiv is transmitted globally. 12 In the absence of treatment, the risk of transmission before or during birth is around 20 and in those who also breastfeed., vertical transmission accounted for about 90 of cases of hiv in children. 77 With appropriate treatment the risk of mother-to-child infection can be reduced to about. 77 Preventive treatment involves the mother taking antiretrovirals during pregnancy and delivery, an elective caesarean section, avoiding breastfeeding, and administering antiretroviral drugs to the newborn.
Knowledge, attitudes and perception regarding hiv/aids and
12 Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment. The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between.63 and.4 per act, with an average.8. 66 The risk of acquiring hiv from a needle stick from an hiv-infected person is estimated.3 (about 1 in 333) per act and the risk following mucous membrane exposure to infected blood.09 (about 1 in 1000) and per act. 49 In the United States intravenous drug users made up 12 of all new cases of hiv in 2009, 67 and in some areas more than 80 of people who inject drugs are hiv positive. 12 hiv is transmitted in about 93 of blood transfusions using infected blood. 66 In developed countries the risk of acquiring hiv from a blood transfusion is extremely low (less than one in half report a million) where improved donor selection and hiv screening is performed; 12 for example, in the uk the risk is reported at one. 69 In low income countries, only half of transfusions may be appropriately screened (as of 2008 70 and it is estimated that up to 15 of hiv infections in these areas come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products, representing between 5 and. 12 71 Although rare because of screening, it is possible to acquire hiv from organ and tissue transplantation. 72 Unsafe medical injections play a significant role in hiv spread in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2007, between 12 and 17 of infections in this region were attributed to medical syringe use. 73 The world health Organization estimates the risk of transmission as a result of a medical injection in Africa.2.
53 Other sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis, are associated with somewhat smaller increases in risk of transmission. 58 The viral load of an infected person is an important risk factor in both sexual and mother-to-child transmission. 60 During the first.5 months of an hiv infection a person's infectiousness is twelve times higher due to plan the high viral load associated with acute hiv. 58 If the person is in the late stages of infection, rates of transmission are approximately eightfold greater. 53 An hiv-positive person who has an undetectable viral load as a result of long-term treatment has effectively no risk of transmitting hiv sexually. 61 Commercial sex workers (including those in pornography ) have an increased rate of hiv. 62 63 rough sex can be a factor associated with an increased risk of transmission. 64 Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of hiv transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections. 65 Body fluids cdc poster from 1989 highlighting the threat of aids associated with drug use The second most frequent mode of hiv transmission is via blood and blood products.
53 In low-income countries, the risk of female-to-male transmission is estimated.38 per act, and of male-to-female transmission.30 per act; the equivalent estimates for high-income countries are.04 per act for female-to-male transmission, and.08 per act for male-to-female transmission. 53 The risk of transmission from anal intercourse is especially high, estimated.41.7 per act in both heterosexual and homosexual contacts. 53 54 While the risk of transmission from oral sex is relatively low, it is still present. 55 The risk from receiving oral sex has been described as "nearly nil 56 however, a few cases have been reported. 57 The per-act risk is estimated.04 for receptive oral intercourse. 58 In settings involving prostitution in low income countries, risk of female-to-male transmission has been estimated.4 per act and male-to-female transmission.05 per act. 53 Risk nashville of transmission increases in the presence of many sexually transmitted infections 59 and genital ulcers. 53 Genital ulcers appear to increase the risk approximately fivefold.
12 There is no risk of acquiring hiv if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. 49 It is also possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of hiv—a condition known as hiv superinfection. 50 Sexual The most frequent mode of transmission of hiv is through sexual contact with an infected person. 12 Globally, the most common mode of hiv transmission is via sexual contacts between people of the opposite sex ; 12 however, the pattern of transmission varies among countries. As of 2014, most hiv transmission in the United States occurred among men who had sex with men (83 of new hiv diagnoses among males aged 13 and older and 67 of total new diagnoses). 51 In the us, gay and bisexual men aged 13 to 24 accounted for an estimated 92 of new hiv diagnoses among all men in their age group and 27 of new diagnoses among all gay and bisexual men. 51 About 15 of gay and bisexual men have hiv while 28 of transgender women test positive in the. 51 52 With regard to unprotected heterosexual contacts, estimates of the risk of hiv transmission per sexual act appear to be four to ten times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries.
Research paper on hiv aids virus: Online masters
28 These infections may affect nearly every organ was system. 36 people with aids have an increased risk of developing various viral-induced cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer. 29 Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common cancer occurring in 10 to 20 of people with hiv. 37 The second most common cancer is lymphoma, which is the cause of death of nearly 16 of people with aids and is the initial sign of aids in 3. 37 Both these cancers are associated with human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8). 37 Cervical cancer occurs more frequently in those with aids because of its association with human papillomavirus (HPV).
37 Conjunctival cancer (of the layer that lines the inner part of eyelids and the white part of the eye) is also more common in those with hiv. 38 Additionally, people with aids frequently have systemic symptoms such as prolonged fevers, sweats (particularly at night swollen lymph nodes, chills, weakness, and unintended weight loss. 39 diarrhea is another common symptom, present in about 90 of people with aids. 40 They can also be affected by diverse psychiatric and neurological symptoms independent of opportunistic infections and cancers. 41 Transmission average per act risk of getting hiv by exposure route to an infected source Exposure route Chance of infection Blood transfusion 90 42 Childbirth (to child) 25 43 needle-sharing injection drug use.67 42 Percutaneous needle stick.30 44 Receptive anal intercourse*.043.0.
1 Between 50 and 70 of people also develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, characterized by unexplained, non-painful enlargement of more than one group of lymph nodes (other than in the groin) for over three to six months. 2 Although most hiv-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to aids, a small proportion (about 5) retain high levels of CD4 T cells ( T helper cells ) without antiretroviral therapy for more than. 28 33 These individuals are classified as "hiv controllers" or long-term nonprogressors (ltnp). 33 Another group consists of those who maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment, known as "elite controllers" or "elite suppressors". They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons. 34 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome main symptoms of aids.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) is defined in terms of either a cd4 T cell count below 200 cells per µL or the occurrence of specific diseases in association with an hiv infection. 28 In the absence of specific treatment, around half of people infected with hiv develop aids within ten years. 28 The most common initial conditions that alert to the presence of aids are pneumocystis pneumonia (40 cachexia in the form of hiv wasting syndrome (20 and esophageal candidiasis. 28 Other common signs include recurrent respiratory tract infections. 28 Opportunistic infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that are normally controlled by the immune system. 35 Which infections occur depends partly on what organisms are common in the person's environment.
Are there really only
28 neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or guillainBarré syndrome also occurs. 28 The duration of the symptoms varies, but is usually one or two weeks. 28 due to their nonspecific character, these symptoms are healthy not often recognized as signs of hiv infection. Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms. Thus, it is recommended that hiv be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection. 28 Clinical latency The initial symptoms are followed by a stage called clinical latency, asymptomatic hiv, or chronic hiv. 1 Without treatment, this second stage of the natural history of hiv infection can last from about three years 30 to over 20 years 31 (on average, about eight years). 32 While typically there are few or no symptoms at first, near the end of this stage many people experience fever, weight loss, gastrointestinal problems and muscle pains.
24 It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s. 25 Contents Signs and symptoms main article: Signs and symptoms of hiv/aids there are three main stages of hiv infection: acute infection, clinical latency and aids. 1 Acute infection main symptoms of acute hiv infection The initial period following the contraction of hiv is called acute hiv, primary hiv or acute retroviral syndrome. 2 26 Many individuals develop an influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 24 weeks after exposure while others have no significant symptoms. 27 28 Symptoms occur in 4090 of cases and most commonly include fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, tiredness, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals. 26 28 The rash, which occurs in 2050 of cases, presents itself on the trunk and is maculopapular, classically. 29 Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage. 26 Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea thesis may occur.
was identified in the early 1980s to 2017, the disease has caused an estimated 35 million deaths worldwide. 18 hiv/aids is considered a pandemic —a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading. 19 hiv originated in west-central Africa during the late 19th or early 20th century. 20 aids was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—hiv infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. 21 hiv/aids has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. 22 The disease also has large economic impacts. 22 There are many misconceptions about hiv/aids such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. 23 The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion including the catholic Church's position not to support condom use as prevention.
5, these late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). 6, this stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss. Hiv is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. 12 Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit hiv. 13 Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. 5 Disease in a surgery baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. 5 There is no cure or vaccine ; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. 6 7 Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. 14 Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
Concurrent sexual partnerships and the spread of hiv
This article is about the disease. For the virus, see. For other uses, see. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome hIV/aids ) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 9 10 11, following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. 5, typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. 6, as the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well front as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems.