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Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property, and have in general been as short in their lives, as they have been violent in their deaths.  So how does a republic differ from a pure democracy and solve the problem? There are two great points of difference in favor of the republic, the delegation of the government to representatives elected by the citizens and the greater number of citizens and area over which it may be applied. . In a republic it is favorable to have representatives elected with a greater number of citizens to protect against the election of unworthy candidates and to elect the people with the most attractive merit. . A large republic with many representatives is necessary to guard against the cabals of a few but should not be so large as to create the confusion of the multitude. . The argument is extended to favor the larger Republic formed by the union of the states as opposed to republics for individual states which would not be of adequate size to thwart the action of factions. . A pure democracy cannot be an effective government if the governed occupy a large area with many citizens and diverse interests because the requirement for every citizen to assemble and vote on every issue would be impractical and unworkable. It is mentioned without proof at this time that the federal Constitution under consideration balances all of these issues with a republican government.

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Ufnalska, sylwia.; Hartley, james (August 2009). "How can we evaluate the quality of abstracts?" (PDF). James Madison, the federalist annual Summary no 10: Madison, november 22, 1787, this paper is considered an important document in American history for it lays out how the writers of the constitution defined the form of government that would protect minority rights from organized and united. The paper should be read in its entirety rather than in short summery if that is of interest. Madison describes how the proposed Republican government mitigates the problems caused in popular governments both ancient and modern by factions of the population whether amounting to a majority or minority that are united and actuated by some interest adverse to the rights of other citizens. he spends some time on why factions exist among people and the possibility of eliminating them while yet preserving liberty and concludes they exist because of human nature and they cannot be eliminated thus one must control their effect. . If the faction is in the minority then republican government clearly controls this situation by regular vote of the majority. . But what if a majority, how are the rights of the minority and the public good protected? . The answer to this is the primary object of this paper. . Another purpose is to continue the argument begun in the last paper that even though the Union of States would be large with many diverse economic and social issues a republican government would be the preferred form of government. Democracies have a poor track record because the majority eventually tramples on the rights of the minority and often does not protect the public good. .

"A Glance at Graphical Abstracts". Comparative media studies: Writing. romans, Brian (February 16, 2011). "Are graphical abstracts a good idea?". Journal of teresa the American Chemical Society. Pferschy-wenzig, em; Pferschy, u; Wang, D; Mocan, A; Atanasov, ag (Sep 2016). "Does a graphical Abstract Bring More visibility to your Paper?".

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"Can apparent superluminal neutrino speeds be explained as a quantum writing weak measurement?". mann, J; Smuts,. "The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting". Retrieved ortolà, policarp (2008). "An ergonomic format for short reporting in scientific journals using nested tables and the deming's cycle". Journal biography of Information Science. Retrieved January 24, 2016. a b bui, lily (March 3, 2015).

pitkin, roy.; Branagan, mary Ann. "Can the accuracy of abstracts be improved by providing specific instructions? A randomized controlled trial". hopewell, sally; Clarke, mike; Moher, david; Wager, Elizabeth; Middleton, Philippa; Altman, douglas G; Schulz, kenneth F; von Elm, Erik. "consort for reporting randomized controlled trials in journal and conference abstracts: explanation and elaboration". "Journal Paper Submission guidelines". Archived from the original on Retrieved. berry; Brunner, N; Popescu, s; Shukla, p (2011).

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However, the validity of this assumption has not been thoroughly studied, and a recent study statistically comparing publications with or without graphical abstracts with regard to several output parameters reflecting visibility failed to demonstrate an effectiveness of graphical abstracts for attracting attention to scientific publications. 17 Abstract quality assessment edit various methods can be used to evaluate abstract quality,. Rating by readers, checklists (not necessary in structured abstracts and readability measures (such as Flesch reading Ease ). 14 18 see also edit references edit books Finkelstein Jr, leo (2004). Pocket book of Technical Writing for Engineers and Scientists (2. London: McGraw-Hill Education - europe. Notes gary Blake and Robert.

Bly, the Elements of Technical Writing,. New York : Macmillan Publishers, 1993. Isbn gliner, jeffrey.; Morgan, george. Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to design and Analysis. Mahwah, nj: Psychology Press. page needed yavchitz, amélie; boutron, Isabelle; Bafeta, aida; auto Marroun, Ibrahim; Charles, pierre; Mantz, jean; ravaud, Philippe; Bero, lisa. "Misrepresentation of randomized controlled trials in press releases argumentative and news coverage: a cohort study".

2004 weihs; licensee biomed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original url abstract types edit Informative edit The informative abstract, also known as the complete. 10 Usually between 100 and 200 words, the informative abstract summarizes the paper's structure, its major topics and key points. A format for scientific short reports that is similar to an informative abstract has been proposed in recent years. 11 Informative abstracts may be viewed as standalone documents.


Descriptive edit The descriptive abstract, also known as the limited abstract or the indicative abstract, provides a description of what the paper covers without delving into its substance. A descriptive abstract is akin to a table of contents in paragraph form. Graphical abstracts edit during the late 2000s, due to the influence of computer storage and retrieval systems such as the Internet, some scientific publications, primarily those published by Elsevier, started including graphical abstracts alongside the text abstracts. 13 The graphic is intended to summarize or be an exemplar for the main thrust of the article. It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance. The use of graphical abstracts has been generally well received by the scientific community. 14 15 Moreover, some journals also include video abstracts and animated abstracts made by the authors to easily explain their papers. 16 Many scientific publishers currently encourage authors to supplement their articles with graphical abstracts, in the hope that such a convenient visual summary will facilitate readers with a clearer outline of papers that are of interest and will result in improved overall visibility of the.

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A study of the surgery hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated inmechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, biography the neonate can gain up to 90 of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up.4 m/s. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins ( Stenella longirostris ) is presented, showing savings of up to 60 in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.

summary paper

In articles that follow the imrad pattern (especially original research, but sometimes other article types structured abstract style is the norm. Citation needed buat (The "A" of abstract may be added to "imrad" yielding "aimrad".) Abstracts that comprise one paragraph (no explicit subheadings) are often called unstructured abstracts by publishers. They are often appropriate for review articles that don't follow the imrad pattern within their bodies. Citation needed Example edit Example taken from the journal of biology, volume 3, Issue.: 8 The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting by daniel weihs, faculty of Aerospace Engineering, technion, Israel Institute of Technology, haifa 32000, Israel. Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels.

issue(s) addressed The research methods used (experimental research, case studies, questionnaires, etc. The results/findings of the research; and The main conclusions and recommendations It may also contain brief references, 6 although some publications' standard style omits references from the abstract, reserving them for the article body (which, by definition, treats the same topics but in more depth). Abstract length varies by discipline and publisher requirements. Typical length ranges from 100 to 500 words, but very rarely more than a page and occasionally just a few words. 7 An abstract may or may not have the section title of "abstract" explicitly listed as an antecedent to content. Abstracts are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper, with any of the following subheadings: Background, Introduction, Objectives, methods, results, conclusions. Citation needed Abstracts in which these subheadings are explicitly given are often called structured abstracts by publishers.

Full texts of scientific papers must often be purchased because of copyright and/or publisher fees and therefore the abstract is a significant selling point for the reprint or electronic form of the full text. 2, the abstract can convey the main results and conclusions of a scientific article but the full text article must be consulted for details of the methodology, the full experimental results, and a critical discussion of the interpretations and conclusions. An abstract allows one to sift through copious numbers of papers for ones in which the researcher can have more confidence that they will be relevant to his or her research. Once papers are chosen based on the abstract, they must be read carefully to be evaluated for relevance. It is generally agreed that one must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the content of an entire paper. According to the results of a study published. Plos medicine, the "exaggerated and inappropriate coverage of research findings in the news media" is ultimately related to inaccurately reporting or over-interpreting research results in many abstract conclusions. 3, a study published in, jama concluded that "inconsistencies in data between abstract and body and reporting of data and other information solely in the abstract are relatively common and that a simple educational intervention directed to the author is ineffective in reducing that frequency.". Citation needed however, publishers of scientific articles invariably make abstracts freely available, even when the article itself is not.

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An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. 1, when used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application. Abstracting and indexing really services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject. The terms précis or synopsis are used in some publications to refer to the same thing that other publications might call an "abstract". In management reports, an executive summary usually contains more information (and often more sensitive information) than the abstract does. Contents, purpose and limitations edit, academic literature uses the abstract to succinctly communicate complex research. An abstract may act as a stand-alone entity instead of a full paper. As such, an abstract is used by many organizations as the basis for selecting research that is proposed for presentation in the form of a poster, platform/oral presentation or workshop presentation at an academic conference. Most literature database search engines index only abstracts rather than providing the entire text of the paper.


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