A genuinely original innovation. . The fusing together of existing technologies in new ways. . re-innovation which involves the assimilation and improvement of imported technologies. We are at stage 3 and to some extent at stage. But we are still far from stage1. 2 and 3 mentioned above, require fixing of our technical education system for the creation of skilled employable manpower capable of building a modern society and a competitive economy. For 1, to which a developing country must make a transition in due course time, requires a large research oriented scientific base.
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In short, they did not integrate theory which supplies concepts and domain experiment, which needs tools and missed the language of plan Mathematics in stating expressing abstract concepts of science. Do you think that you have achieved what you had planned? I succeeded in establishing a first rate Institute of Physics which was the first of its kind in pakistan. It played an important role in the creation of a critical mass of some excellent physicists who did well abroad and within the country and also played a major role in national security. Later I founded the directorate of Technical development in paec which played a crucial role in pakistans nuclear program, wrote some influential books, wrote some research papers on the frontiers of Particle Physics which are internationally acknowledged by having large citations. In 1999 I founded the national Centre for Physics on the pattern of ictp, trieste, italy. This centre has now become a vibrant centre of research in various disciplines of physics and is helping the universities and industries in pakistan, in complementing their research programs. I was co-director of Nathiagali summer College which was started in 1976 at the suggestion of Prof. Should we focus more on design and development instead of research and development? According to the Chinese medium-to-long-term plan for the development of Science and Technology, there are three stages of innovation:. .
Unless a customer contractor relationship with a built-in accountability process and research support is not established, such councils are not going to report succeed. Contractual research is an alien word in pakistani science. Why the muslim world lags behind in science? Greek tradition was totally theocratic: for ancient Greeks pure thought was much superior than the work with hands, not withstanding Archemedes laws on floating bodies. The creation of experimental spirit was primarily due to the muslims down to the 1th century. Around 1000 ce, ibn-i-sina, al-Biruni ( ce ibn-al-haitham ( CE) were empirical scientists, using methods of experiment. Although they were better experimentalists than Greeks, they did not go beyond observations. They were more interested in practical applications than building a scientific edifice. Another thing which they missed was the role of Mathematics in science: the laws of nature are written in the language of Mathematics (Galileo).
revamp the business high school education system. . Change the technical education system to produce a skilled and educated workforce. . Change the higher education system to produce talented and competitive engineers and scientists. Are you satisfied with the existing research institutes in pakistan? We have a large number of scientific councils but they have not been successful to create an impact because the applied research must be market oriented. Apart from budget constraints there is a basic reason for their failure. They could not establish themselves as customers to prospective contractors in industry, utilities, the government departments and defense.
Majority of our students do not opt for hec sponsored scholarships, as they can get scholarships from us and other universities. They go on their own and dont want to get bound to hec. What kind of challenge do you see for setting up an institute in pakistan? As many erroneously believe, money is not the main issue; it is the competent manpower which we lack. Our educational and scientific base is too small and it is challenging to find appropriate manpower. We need to enhance it quantitatively as well as qualitatively. We need to:. .
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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto made a good decision to go for the nuclear option as we could not face the much larger India in a conventional war. I met Munir Khan and it was decided to have a theoretical physics group in paec to be headed. The assignment of this about group was clearly defined, namely to prepare a conceptual design of the nuclear device and develop the triggering mechanism. Every successive government supported this program. How did you change from Mathematics to Physics? There is a very intimate relationship between mathematics and theoretical physics. Abdus Salam also changed from mathematics to physics, and being inspired by his example, i did the same.
What is difference between an international research organization and the one in pakistan? The main difference is quality and availability of competent people. Further what we lack is the creative milieu, some aspects of which are lack of high resume density of trained individuals, diversity of competence, lack of communication, including informal meeting places, lack of mobility between creative milieu, lack of competitiveness. Pressure, lack of resources, lack of freedom to travel around. Are the current students up to the mark? Generally the students who come to quaid-e-azam University are good and some of them are very good.
Mobility and International Contacts: This was ensured by the ford foundation Grant and the support of ictp, italy. Idealism of the youth: It was the idealism of the youth which not only enabled many of us, who could have stayed abroad, to return, but also infused a great enthusiasm in the pioneering role of establishing a new institution from scratch. At its inception none of us were more than 35 years of age. The results were spectacular. Within four years the Institute of Physics was at the international map.
The PhDs produced were of international standard. In 1970 I went to the University of Maryland, usa on sabbatical leave, as a visiting Professor. I stayed there for one and half years and in February 1972, i joined the daresbury nuclear Physics Lab, near Manchester, uk and stayed there for nine months. On my way back to pakistan in September or October 1972, i visited ictp and met. He asked me to see munir Ahmad Khan, the then Chairman of paec. It was very crucial period in our history. We had lost half of our country.
Quaid e, azam, essay
In that sort of environment and in life spite of the fact that this university was established in the public sector which has its own handicaps the Institute of Physics succeeded in its mission, at least in its earlier years. What were the fundamental conditions which led to its success? Patronage at highest level: President Muhammad ayub Khan, took personal interest in the development of this University. A competent Vice Chancellor:. Raziduddin Siddiqui, had a lot of experience in university building and had gone through higher education abroad in uk and Germany and rubbed shoulders with the top most physicists and mathematicians of that era. A new concept of structuring the university: this was done in the form of institutes rather than departments. Critical size: Efforts were made to bring young scientists at one place to form a critical group. Once a critical number is reached, a chain reaction starts and the group becomes self sustained. Fortunately, we could.
To give example of India, even before partition the India national Congress as a political party had two sub-committees, one on education and other on science and technology, which were assisted by the experts in their respective fields. Therefore, at essay the time of independence, india was ready to implement the policies in the field of education and science and technology formulated by those sub-committees. It is how they established several Indian Institutes of Technologies, which maintained highest standard in education and scientific research. Even after sixty five years of the establishment of pakistan, no political party in my opinion has ever established the sub-committees on education and science and technology, showing that these fields have never been their priorities. This in my opinion is the main reason why pakistan lags behind in science and technology as compared to its neighbors. In pakistan I can give you the example of Institute of Physics which was established in quaid-i-azam University in 1966. In this case the political will at the highest level helped to establish a first rate institute. This was established at the time when pakistan had by and large no tradition of graduate school training. The premier university of pakistan the punjab University, in its hundred years of existence ( ) had not produced a single PhD in Maths and only three in Physics.
Salams vision about science and technology? Riazuddin: There is a direct relationship between science and economic development. Abdus Salam realized the need for the development of the science and technology in the developing countries for the betterment of the society. His thesis was that the situation of the developing world, both with respect to their intellectual development and material benefits, can be improved in the long run through an assisted and massive importation of modern science and technology, the possession of which is the basic. To help to put this thesis in practice he founded and subsequently developed the International Centre for Theoretical Physics which has touched the lives of thousands of physicists from the developing countries, giving them opportunities to relive with their peers the pioneers and thinkers. He was also instrumental in founding twas which is, now viewed as one of the worlds foremost organizations for scientific capacity building in the south and one of the leading voices for science based on sustainable development in the developing world. Why pakistan lags behind in science and technology even as compared to its neighbors? It is because of lack of political will at the highest level.
He is one of the pioneers of pakistans atomic deterrence programme as he was the member Technical of the pakistan Atomic Energy commission from 1973 to 1976 and established the directorate of Technical development. He was a student of Nobel laureate in Physics Prof. Abdus Salam both at Lahore and at Cambridge. He carried out his leading-edge research at various places including International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ictp european Organization for Nuclear Research (cern daresbury laboratory and various universities in the usa, where he got published important research papers in the field of High Energy Physics. However, his primary places of work were quaid-i-azam University and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, saudi Arabia. He has co-authored three books one of which is considered a classic in the field of weak interactions. The other two are graduate level books which are taught in various universities all over the world and received very good reviews from experts in the field. He is a fellow of pakistan Academy of Sciences, Academy of developing World (twas islamic Academy of Sciences and the American Physical Society.surgery
In Urdu Speech, quaid e, azam History In Urdu
The examination system inpakistan, byAllah Nawaznazir haidar ShahAbdul Ghaffar Tahir Muhammad Masaud Asdaque. Introduction, an over viewintegral part of teaching learningprocess purpose of examination systemaccountability for institution and their standingfor the achievement of objectivesassess the competence for admissionand employment. Historical back ground, inherited from the British system, themodel of the university of LondonEstablishment of madras and Calcuttauniversities in 1857Matriculation became a gateway to rviceHartog committee 1929Matriculation sets a standard of achievement and as a gate to higher ter that a degree was a key. Connecting content to people. Company, resources, plans products, apps. Riazuddin is an eminent scientist surgery of pakistan. Riazuddin is an eminent scientist specializing in high-energy physics nuclear physics. He established a first rate Institute of Physics (now called the department of Physics) at the University of Islamabad (now called quaid-i-azam University which within a short span of four years was on the international map.