17 Carnival Times controversy edit Irving 's time as editor of the carnival Times, a student rag mag of the University of London Carnival Committee, became controversial in 1959 when he added a "secret supplement" to the magazine. 18 19 This supplement contained an article in which he called Hitler the "greatest unifying force europe has known since Charlemagne ". Although Irving deflected criticism by characterising the carnival Times as " satirical 20 he also stated that " the formation of a european Union is interpreted as building a group of superior peoples, and the jews have always viewed with suspicion the emergence of any. 21 Opponents also viewed a cartoon included in the supplement as racist and criticised another article in which Irving wrote that the British press was owned by jews. 22 Volunteers were later recruited to remove and destroy the supplements before the magazine's distribution. 21 Irving has said that the criticism is "probably justifiable" and has described his motivation in producing the controversial secret issue of Carnival Times as being to prevent the carnival from making a profit that would be passed on to a south African group which. 15 23 The destruction of Dresden edit After serving in 1959 as editor of the University of London Carnival Committee's journal, Irving left for West Germany, where he worked as a steelworker in a thyssen ag steel works in the ruhr area and learned the.
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We went through childhood with no toys. We had no kind of childhood at all. We were living on an island that was crowded with other people's armies". 13 According to his brother, nicholas, david has also been a provocateur and prankster since his youth. 10 Irving went on to say to rosenbaum that his negationist views about World War ii dated to his childhood, particularly due to his objections to the way adolf Hitler was portrayed in the British media during the war. 13 Irving asserted that his "sceptical" views about the Third reich were rooted in his doubts about the cartoonist caricatures of Hitler and the other nazi leaders published in the British wartime press. 13 Student years edit After completing A levels at Brentwood School, irving briefly studied physics at Imperial College london. He did not complete the course because of financial constraints. 7 14 Irving later studied for two years toward a degree in political economy at University college london, 15 However, he again had to drop out due to lack of funds. 16 During this period at university, he participated in a debate annual on Commonwealth immigration, seconding British Union of Fascists founder Sir Oswald Mosley.
Nicholas Irving has said that "david used to run toward bombed out houses shouting 'heil Hitler! a statement which Irving denies. 10 11 During World War ii, irving 's father was an officer aboard the thesis light cruiser hms edinburgh. On, while escorting Convoy qp 11 in the barents sea, the ship was badly damaged by the german submarine u-456. Two days later she was attacked by surface craft, and now beyond recovery was abandoned and scuttled by a torpedo from hms foresight. Irving 's father survived, but severed all links with his wife and children after the incident. 12 Irving described his childhood in an interview with the American writer Ron Rosenbaum as: "Unlike the Americans, we English suffered great deprivations.
Deborah Lipstadt and Penguin books, he was shown to have deliberately misrepresented historical evidence to promote holocaust denial. Note 3 The English court found that Irving was an active holocaust denier, antisemite and racist, 5 who "for his own ideological reasons persistently and deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence". 5 6 In addition, the court found that Irving 's books had distorted the history of Hitler's role in the holocaust to depict Hitler in a favourable light. Contents slogan Early life edit Irving in 1955 Irving and his twin brother Nicholas 7 were born in Hutton, near Brentwood, essex, england. They had a brother, john, 8 and sister, jennifer. 9 Their father, john James Cawdell Irving (18981967 was a career naval officer and a commander in the royal navy. His mother, beryl Irving ( née newington was an illustrator and writer of children's books.
His works include, the destruction of Dresden (1963 hitler's War (1977 Churchill's War (1987) and. Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third reich (1996). In his works, he argued that. Adolf Hitler did not know of the extermination of Jews or, if he did, opposed. 2, though, irving 's revisionist views of World War ii were never taken seriously by mainstream historians, he was once recognised for his knowledge of nazi germany and his ability to unearth new historical documents. Irving marginalised himself in 1988 when, based on his reading of the pseudoscientific, note 1, leuchter report, he began to espouse holocaust denial, specifically denying that Jews were murdered by gassing at the. 3 4, irving 's reputation as a historian was discredited, note 2 when, in the course of an unsuccessful libel case he filed against the American historian.
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J., and they adopted two children. He involved his server family in many of his hobbies and outdoor activities. He died of a heart attack while vacationing at emerson Cape cod, mass. In addition to the nobel Prize, langmuir was the recipient of numerous awards and more than a dozen honorary degrees. He served as president of both the American Chemical Society (1929) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1941). Since his death, a mountain in Alaska, a residential college of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and the surface chemistry journal published by the American Chemical Society have been named for him.
Described as the quintessential industrial researcher, langmuir himself claimed that his accomplishments came from his working for the fun. For other uses, see, david, irving (disambiguation). Cawdell, irving (born ) is an English author and. Holocaust denier 1 who has written on the military and political history. World War ii, with a focus on, nazi germany.
Working independently of the American atomic chemist Gilbert. Lewis, langmuir formulated theories of atomic structure and chemical bond formation, known as the lewis-Langmuir theory of molecular structure, and introduced the term covalence. Meteorology research During World War ii, langmuir worked on the problem of airplane deicing at a station on the summit of mount Washington,. With Schaefer, he also investigated the production of particles of various sizes and their behaviour in the atmosphere and in filters. These studies led to improved methods for generating smokescreens by the military, as well as to his subsequent interest in weather modification by seeding clouds with small particles. Some of his experiments in seeding clouds preceded a heavy snowfall in Schenectady in the winter of 1946 and heavy rainfall near Albuquerque,.
M., on a day in July 1949 when no substantial rain was predicted. Whether there was any connection between the seeding and the subsequent precipitation, however, remained controversial. Avocations and awards This excursion into experimental meteorology was part of Langmuirs interest in science out-of-doors, which involved his close observation and explanation of many natural everyday phenomena. An avid outdoorsman, he enjoyed hiking, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, and boating throughout much of his life. He learned to pilot a plane at age 49 and was a personal friend of Charles Lindbergh. He was also a friend of the musical conductor leopold Stokowski, with whom he worked to improve the quality of radio broadcasts of orchestral music. Langmuir was an ardent conservationist and an advocate for the control of atomic energy, as well as an unsuccessful candidate to Schenectadys city council and an organizer of the boy scouts in that city. In 1912 he married Marion Mersereau of south Orange,.
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When he later read about the heating caused by the recombination of hydrogen atoms into molecules at solid surfaces, he combined this with his earlier work to develop an atomic hydrogen welding torch, which generates high temperatures through the dissociation and subsequent resume recombination of hydrogen. Langmuirs study of gases near hot metal surfaces also led him to investigate thermionic emission —the ejection of electrons from a heated surface—and the behaviour of surfaces in a vacuum. These investigations resulted in theoretical advances in describing the spatial distribution of charge between a pair of electrodes and practical improvements to vacuum tubes, as well as the invention of a fast and efficient vacuum pump. The largest body of Langmuirs work involved the behaviour of molecules at solid and liquid surfaces. He laid the groundwork for his prize-winning work on surface chemistry as early as 191617 with important publications on the adsorption, condensation, and evaporation of gas molecules at solid surfaces and on the arrangements of molecules in the surface layers of liquids. These studies, like most of his investigations, showed his penchant for simple experimental designs coupled with extensive mathematical analysis. After 1932 Langmuir returned to his earlier interest in liquid surfaces and, together with his collaborators Katherine Blodgett and Vincent Schaefer, examined the monomolecular layers of various organic compounds on the surface of water. Blodgett developed a method for transferring such a monolayer to a solid surface, and the successive buildup of monolayers became known as a langmuir-Blodgett film. This technique proved significant in later biophysical studies of the membranes of living cells.
Enticed by the companys commitment to fundamental research, the latitude given to the scientists working there, and the availability of equipment, langmuir accepted an invitation to remain. At first he apparently intended to find another academic position, but he stayed at General Electric for the rest of his career, retiring in 1950 but continuing as a consultant until his death. Improving the early tungsten-filament incandescent light bulbs was one of the ongoing projects at the research lab in 1909. These high-vacuum bulbs had several drawbacks: their glass envelopes blackened over time, thus reducing their illumination, and the tungsten filaments were relatively short-lived. While other workers at the laboratory believed that a better vacuum would lengthen the bulbs lives, langmuir began to investigate the behaviour of gases near a hot tungsten filament. The blackening of the bulbs, editing he discovered, resulted from the deposition of tungsten that evaporated from the hot filament, and an atmosphere of inert gas within the bulb—a mixture of nitrogen and argon worked best—reduced the problem. This, along with Langmuirs development of an improved design for the tungsten filament, led to a much-improved and commercially successful incandescent bulb. Among the gases that Langmuir studied was hydrogen. A hot tungsten filament rapidly cools in the presence of this gas, and he postulated the cause to be the dissociation of hydrogen molecules into atoms.
theoretical science and its practical applications. During his years in Germany, langmuir frequented the mountains for skiing in the winter and for climbing in the summer. Such outdoor activities remained lifelong interests for him. Finding a career, after returning to the United States, langmuir became an instructor at the Stevens Institute of Technology. J., but he did not find his three years there particularly satisfying. His teaching duties left him little time for research, and he was not paid what he thought he was worth. He quickly realized that this was not the avenue to the scientific reputation and financial security that he sought. In the summer of 1909, instead of a mountain climbing vacation, langmuir worked at the, general Electric Companys research laboratory in, schenectady,.
Both of his parents were inveterate record keepers, and he developed this habit himself while still young. He attended schools in Brooklyn and Philadelphia, as well as Paris during his fathers three-year company assignment in Europe. Interested in chemistry, physics, and mathematics from his youth, langmuir chose a major in metallurgical engineering. Columbia university in, new York city because that curriculum, as he later said, was strong in chemistryhad more physics than the chemical course, and more mathematics than the course in physics—and I wanted all three. After graduating from Columbias School of Mines in 1903, langmuir studied with physical chemist. Walther Nernst at the, university of Göttingen in Germany. His dissertation focused on the dissociation you of gases near a hot platinum wire, for which he received a doctorate in 1906.
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Irving, langmuir, (born Jan. 31, 1881, Brooklyn,. 16, 1957, falmouth, mass. American desk physical chemist who was awarded the 1932. Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry. He was the second American and the first industrial chemist to receive this honour. Besides surface chemistry, his scientific research, spanning more than 50 years, included chemical reactions, thermal effects, and electrical discharges in gases; atomic structure; surface phenomena in a vacuum; and atmospheric science. Early life and education, langmuir was the third of four sons of Charles Langmuir, an insurance executive, and Sadie comings.